2015/09/25 11:20:42

CPAN 初期設定

CPANを利用するための簡単な設定と、その変更方法

CPAN 起動

まっさらな環境で CPAN コマンドを利用しようとすると、初期設定が行われます。

$ su -
# cpan

古いチュートリアルでは、perl -MCPAN -e shell などと打って cpan を起動しているかもしれませんが、cpan と打つだけで、大丈夫です。

# cpan

CPAN is the world-wide archive of perl resources. It consists of about
300 sites that all replicate the same contents around the globe. Many
countries have at least one CPAN site already. The resources found on
CPAN are easily accessible with the CPAN.pm module. If you want to use
CPAN.pm, lots of things have to be configured. Fortunately, most of
them can be determined automatically. If you prefer the automatic
configuration, answer 'yes' below.

If you prefer to enter a dialog instead, you can answer 'no' to this
question and I'll let you configure in small steps one thing after the
other. (Note: you can revisit this dialog anytime later by typing 'o
conf init' at the cpan prompt.)
Would you like me to configure as much as possible automatically? [yes]

最近の CPAN コマンドだと、上記のように聞かれます。
「できる限り自動的に設定していいかな?」と言われているので、素直にyes とタイプするか、デフォルトyesなのでそのままエンターを押せばすべて自動的によしなに設定がされます。make がインストールされてないとかいう致命的な状態のサーバでない限り、はまることはあまりないと思うので、基本的に自動で大丈夫です。ただし、マニュアル設定したいこだわりのある人は no と入力すると、ひとつひとつ設定が可能。

ここでは、細かい設定項目についてはいったん省略します。

設定内容を確認する o conf コマンド

CPAN シェルで、o conf というコマンドを発行すると、設定状況を一覧することができます。

# cpan

cpan shell -- CPAN exploration and modules installation (v1.9402)
Enter 'h' for help.

cpan[1]> o conf
$CPAN::Config options from '/usr/lib/perl5/5.8.8/CPAN/Config.pm':
    commit             [Commit changes to disk]
    defaults           [Reload defaults from disk]
    help               [Short help about 'o conf' usage]
    init               [Interactive setting of all options]

    applypatch         []
    auto_commit        [0]
    build_cache        [100]
    build_dir          [/root/.cpan/build]
    build_dir_reuse    [0]
    build_requires_install_policy [ask/yes]
    bzip2              [/usr/bin/bzip2]
    cache_metadata     [1]
    check_sigs         [0]
    colorize_debug     undef
    colorize_output    undef
    colorize_print     undef
    colorize_warn      undef
    commandnumber_in_prompt [1]
    commands_quote     undef
    connect_to_internet_ok [1]
    cpan_home          [/root/.cpan]
    curl               [/usr/bin/curl]
    dontload_hash      undef
    dontload_list      undef
    ftp                []
    ftp_passive        [1]
    ftp_proxy          []
    ftpstats_period    undef
    ftpstats_size      undef
    getcwd             [cwd]
    gpg                []
    gzip               [/bin/gzip]
    halt_on_failure    [0]
    histfile           [/root/.cpan/histfile]
    histsize           [100]
    http_proxy         []
    inactivity_timeout [0]
    index_expire       [1]
    inhibit_startup_message [0]
    keep_source_where  [/root/.cpan/sources]
    load_module_verbosity [v]
    lynx               []
    make               [/usr/bin/make]
    make_arg           []
    make_install_arg   []
    make_install_make_command [/usr/bin/make]
    makepl_arg         []
    mbuild_arg         []
    mbuild_install_arg []
    mbuild_install_build_command [./Build]
    mbuildpl_arg       []
    ncftp              []
    ncftpget           []
    no_proxy           []
    pager              [/usr/bin/less]
    password           undef
    patch              []
    patches_dir        undef
    perl5lib_verbosity [v]
    prefer_installer   [MB]
    prefs_dir          [/root/.cpan/prefs]
    prerequisites_policy [ask]
    proxy_pass         undef
    proxy_user         undef
    randomize_urllist  undef
    scan_cache         [atstart]
    shell              [/bin/bash]
    show_unparsable_versions [0]
    show_upload_date   [0]
    show_zero_versions [0]
    tar                [/bin/tar]
    tar_verbosity      [v]
    term_is_latin      [1]
    term_ornaments     [1]
    test_report        [0]
    trust_test_report_history [0]
    unzip              [/usr/bin/unzip]
    urllist
    use_sqlite         [0]
    username           undef
    wait_list          undef
    wget               [/usr/bin/wget]
    yaml_load_code     [0]
    yaml_module        [YAML]


cpan[2]>

項目ごとに見たい場合は、o conf のあとに項目名をつけます。

cpan > o conf cpan_home
cpan_home          [/root/.cpan]

CPAN の設定がある場所

o conf の最初に書かれてあるとおり、cpan の設定は、/usr/lib/perl5/5.8.8/CPAN/Config.pm にあります。

# vi /usr/lib/perl5/5.8.8/CPAN/Config.pm

cpan から落としてくるファイルやもろもろのデータは、cpan_home [/root/.cpan] という設定の通り、/root/.cpna 以下に保存されます。

CPAN 設定をやり直す

CPAN の設定を最初からやり直したい!
そういう場合は、以下のように o conf init すると、設定をやり直せます。

# cpan
cpan > o conf init

CPAN is the world-wide archive of perl resources. It consists of about
300 sites that all replicate the same contents around the globe. Many
countries have at least one CPAN site already. The resources found on
CPAN are easily accessible with the CPAN.pm module. If you want to use
CPAN.pm, lots of things have to be configured. Fortunately, most of
them can be determined automatically. If you prefer the automatic
configuration, answer 'yes' below.

If you prefer to enter a dialog instead, you can answer 'no' to this
question and I'll let you configure in small steps one thing after the
other. (Note: you can revisit this dialog anytime later by typing 'o
conf init' at the cpan prompt.)
Would you like me to configure as much as possible automatically? [yes]

項目ごとの設定を変更する

o confで確認した設定を、項目ごとに変更したい場合は、o conf コマンドの後ろに項目名を書き、その後ろに設定内容を書きます。

cpan > o conf build_cache 15
cpan > o conf cpan_home "/root/dev/.cpan"

項目に設定内容が複数存在する場合は、shift unshift pop push によって操作できます。

cpan > o conf urllist push http://www.perl.com/CPAN/

設定ができたら、忘れず commit します(auto_commit を有効にしてれば不要です)。

cpan > o conf commit
commit: wrote '/usr/lib/perl5/5.8.8/CPAN/Config.pm'

設定項目の勘所

  • urllist
    地域と場所を選んで設定をするかと思いますが、個人的には CPAN/SITES から サーバの設置場所に近くて http なサイトを選んで3つくらいリストしています。
  • make
    サーバに make が入ってないと、CPANコマンドは動くがモジュールがまったくビルドできない。当たり前だが、その際に make がないよとは言ってくれないので(make ができない → make入ってない?と推測しないといけない)、ちょっと注意が必要。

設定項目のワンライン解説

applypatch         path to external prg
auto_commit        commit all changes to config variables to disk
build_cache        size of cache for directories to build modules
build_dir          locally accessible directory to build modules
build_dir_reuse    boolean if distros in build_dir are persistent
build_requires_install_policy
                   to install or not to install when a module is
                   only needed for building. yes|no|ask/yes|ask/no
bzip2              path to external prg
cache_metadata     use serializer to cache metadata
check_sigs         if signatures should be verified
colorize_debug     Term::ANSIColor attributes for debugging output
colorize_output    boolean if Term::ANSIColor should colorize output
colorize_print     Term::ANSIColor attributes for normal output
colorize_warn      Term::ANSIColor attributes for warnings
commandnumber_in_prompt
                   boolean if you want to see current command number
commands_quote     preferred character to use for quoting external
                   commands when running them. Defaults to double
                   quote on Windows, single tick everywhere else;
                   can be set to space to disable quoting
connect_to_internet_ok
                   whether to ask if opening a connection is ok before
                   urllist is specified
cpan_home          local directory reserved for this package
curl               path to external prg
dontload_hash      DEPRECATED
dontload_list      arrayref: modules in the list will not be
                   loaded by the CPAN::has_inst() routine
ftp                path to external prg
ftp_passive        if set, the envariable FTP_PASSIVE is set for downloads
ftp_proxy          proxy host for ftp requests
ftpstats_period    max number of days to keep download statistics
ftpstats_size      max number of items to keep in the download statistics
getcwd             see below
gpg                path to external prg
gzip               location of external program gzip
halt_on_failure    stop processing after the first failure of queued
                   items or dependencies
histfile           file to maintain history between sessions
histsize           maximum number of lines to keep in histfile
http_proxy         proxy host for http requests
inactivity_timeout breaks interactive Makefile.PLs or Build.PLs
                   after this many seconds inactivity. Set to 0 to
                   disable timeouts.
index_expire       refetch index files after this many days 
inhibit_startup_message
                   if true, suppress the startup message
keep_source_where  directory in which to keep the source (if we do)
load_module_verbosity
                   report loading of optional modules used by CPAN.pm
lynx               path to external prg
make               location of external make program
make_arg           arguments that should always be passed to 'make'
make_install_make_command
                   the make command for running 'make install', for
                   example 'sudo make'
make_install_arg   same as make_arg for 'make install'
makepl_arg         arguments passed to 'perl Makefile.PL'
mbuild_arg         arguments passed to './Build'
mbuild_install_arg arguments passed to './Build install'
mbuild_install_build_command
                   command to use instead of './Build' when we are
                   in the install stage, for example 'sudo ./Build'
mbuildpl_arg       arguments passed to 'perl Build.PL'
ncftp              path to external prg
ncftpget           path to external prg
no_proxy           don't proxy to these hosts/domains (comma separated list)
pager              location of external program more (or any pager)
password           your password if you CPAN server wants one
patch              path to external prg
patches_dir        local directory containing patch files
perl5lib_verbosity verbosity level for PERL5LIB additions
prefer_installer   legal values are MB and EUMM: if a module comes
                   with both a Makefile.PL and a Build.PL, use the
                   former (EUMM) or the latter (MB); if the module
                   comes with only one of the two, that one will be
                   used no matter the setting
prerequisites_policy
                   what to do if you are missing module prerequisites
                   ('follow' automatically, 'ask' me, or 'ignore')
prefs_dir          local directory to store per-distro build options
proxy_user         username for accessing an authenticating proxy
proxy_pass         password for accessing an authenticating proxy
randomize_urllist  add some randomness to the sequence of the urllist
scan_cache         controls scanning of cache ('atstart' or 'never')
shell              your favorite shell
show_unparsable_versions
                   boolean if r command tells which modules are versionless
show_upload_date   boolean if commands should try to determine upload date
show_zero_versions boolean if r command tells for which modules $version==0
tar                location of external program tar
tar_verbosity      verbosity level for the tar command
term_is_latin      deprecated: if true Unicode is translated to ISO-8859-1
                   (and nonsense for characters outside latin range)
term_ornaments     boolean to turn ReadLine ornamenting on/off
test_report        email test reports (if CPAN::Reporter is installed)
trust_test_report_history
                   skip testing when previously tested ok (according to
                   CPAN::Reporter history)
unzip              location of external program unzip
urllist            arrayref to nearby CPAN sites (or equivalent locations)
use_sqlite         use CPAN::SQLite for metadata storage (fast and lean)
username           your username if you CPAN server wants one
wait_list          arrayref to a wait server to try (See CPAN::WAIT)
wget               path to external prg
yaml_load_code     enable YAML code deserialisation via CPAN::DeferredCode
yaml_module        which module to use to read/write YAML files

SEE ALSO

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